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Show All Notifications. Join Community. Sign In. Post here. Adobe Certification. Getting Started. Admin API. Martin Fleischmann was 11 years old when his family fled from their native Czechoslovakia in Shortly before his father died from abuse inflicted by the Nazis, Fleischmann was taken in for a while by foster parents in Britain, where he became a brilliant, creative scientist.
At age 40 he was appointed to the professorial chair in electrochemistry at the University of Southampton. About the same time he became president of the International Society of Electrochemistry, and was made a fellow of The Royal Society.
Stanley Pons was born in in North Carolina, but chose to do his PhD at Southampton, where Fleischmann had acquired an international reputation. By the time Pons received his doctorate in , he was well acquainted with Fleischmann.
Later, when Pons became chair of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Utah, Fleischmann was a regular visitor. At one point he brought with him a heretical theory which he confided to Pons, during a hike in Utah's Millcreek Canyon.
Under certain circumstances, Fleischmann believed, nuclear fusion might occur near room temperature.
They ended up with something very simple: an insulated glass jar containing deuterium oxide commonly known as heavy water in which two electrodes were immersed, one of them a coil of platinum wire, the other a rod of palladium - a precious metal comparable in value to gold.
A small voltage between the electrodes decomposed the deuterium oxide into oxygen and deuterium a form of hydrogen , some of which was absorbed into the palladium.
This was high school chemistry. But Fleischmann believed that if the process continued long enough, deuterium atoms could become so tightly packed in the palladium, fusion would occur.
Orthodox science said that this was absurd. Atomic nuclei repel each other; a nuclear explosion or insanely high temperatures as in a device such as JET are required to force them together.
Moreover, laboratory fusion reactions have never lasted more than a few seconds. Consequently, Pons and Fleischmann created a seismic shock in the scientific community when they claimed their simple apparatus had generated low-level fusion reactions yielding heat for hours at a time.
In March , the University of Utah promoted the work using hyperbole it would live to regret: "Breakthrough process has potential to provide inexhaustible source of energy" was the headline on the press release.
This seemed so implausible that The New York Times at first refused to print the story. But a reporter named Jerry Bishop, of The Wall Street Journal, was less inhibited.
Partly catalyzed by Bishop's revelations, cold fusion became a major media event. The euphoria was brief. Many physicists were highly skeptical that a couple of chemists could have pulled off such a feat.
More damning, they were claiming to validate their far-fetched theory via an experiment that wasn't properly documented. In their defense, Pons and Fleischmann explained that they couldn't reveal all the details because the University of Utah's patent had not yet been approved.
They admitted that the press conference had been premature, but claimed the University had urged them to go public when another scientist - a physicist named Steve Jones - turned out to be pursuing similar work.
These excuses weren't well received. Second, thou shalt not exaggerate the results. Third, thou shalt tell other scientists precisely what thou did.
They broke all of those rules. The Journal's Bishop was accused of compounding the hype. By the end of April, academic criticism was causing Pons to lose patience.
But his vilification had barely begun. On May 1, East Coast physicists launched a major debunking offensive. A Boston Herald headline read, "MIT Bombshell Knocks Fusion 'Breakthrough' Cold.
The director of their department, Ronald Parker, dismissed the whole thing as "scientific schlock" and "maybe fraud.
A few months later, with the full details still not released from Utah, MIT described its own version of the Pons-Fleischmann experiment and reported no excess heat.
Soon, other hot fusion institutions, such as Harwell in Great Britain, were complaining that they couldn't make the experiment perform as advertised, either.
It seemed evident that Pons and Fleischmann had precipitated a media circus before verifying their wild ideas, and now they would be forced to face reality.
Eugene Mallove, an MIT-trained engineer working as chief science writer in the MIT news office, was a cold fusion skeptic. Then he studied data from the MIT experiment, and the graph looked wrong to him.
In a recent interview, he told me, "I realized they had moved the baseline to conceal a small amount of anomalous heat.
Packham had even detected small amounts of tritium, a radioactive by-product virtually guaranteeing that fusion had taken place.
But then he said to Packham, my grad student, 'I've turned off the tape, now you can tell me - it's a fraud, isn't it? If you confess to me now, I won't be hard on you, you'll be able to pursue your career.
According to Bockris, "A postdoctoral student named Kainthla, and a technician named Velev, both detected tritium and heat after we took Packham off the work because of the controversy.
Since then, numerous people have obtained comparable results. In , I counted papers reporting tritium in low-temperature fusion experiments.
One of them was by Fritz Will, the president of The Electrochemical Society, who has an impeccable reputation. Still, Taubes's report in the June Science magazine clearly suggested that Packham might have added tritium to fake his results.
This reassured many people that cold fusion had been bogus all along. Packham received his PhD, but only on condition that all references to cold fusion be removed from the body of his thesis.
Today he works for NASA, developing astronaut life-support systems. John Bockris sighs as he remembers the impact on his own career. He was investigated by his university, which found no evidence of incompetence or fraud.
He was investigated again in , and exonerated again; but his ordeal still wasn't over. As he recalls: "The people in the chemistry department created their own ad hoc committee for the investigation of professor Bockris.
For 11 months I was under investigation by them, without ever knowing what the investigation was. Other cold fusion researchers were likewise reviled - especially Pons and Fleischmann, who eventually retreated to the south of France, where Pons adopted French citizenship.
Financial factors may have played a part in the fierce animosity exhibited toward cold fusion experiments. The bottom line, though, was that since most labs couldn't replicate the effect, most physicists sincerely believed that cold fusion didn't exist.
They dismissed the few positive results as experimental error. As it happens, there was another possible explanation: Palladium is a quixotic metal.
Pons and Fleischmann were not fully aware of these potential factors at the time of their press conference. A year later, the subtleties of cold fusion experimentation were better understood - but by this time, it was too late.
The concept had been ridiculed and denounced. Still, some researchers refused to quit. An international "cold fusion underground" evolved, trading data and theories which conventional journals refused to publish.
In Italy, Giuliano Preparata claimed he had replicated the original experiment successfully. So did a Frenchman named Lonchampt, with support from the French Atomic Energy Commission.
Pons and Fleischmann set up a new laboratory in the south of France, funded by Technova, a research group supported by Toyota.
The Electric Power Research Institute EPRI financed cold fusion research at SRI International, and several other institutions quietly sponsored similar work.
Some reports claimed unequivocal success: In August , in document TR, regarding project , EPRI concluded: "Small but definite evidence of nuclear reactions have been detected at levels some 40 orders of magnitude greater than predicted by conventional nuclear theory.
In , Pons and Fleischmann described a cell that had reached boiling point, and subsequently they claimed to generate more than 1 kilowatt per cubic centimeter of palladium - about percent excess heat, lasting for more than 50 days.
Fleischmann calculated that if this ratio could be upped to kilowatts, "You could satisfy all the world's existing energy requirements with the existing supply of palladium.
Alas, to skeptics this sounded like an embarrassing attempt by a discredited scientist to salvage his reputation.
Few people took Fleischmann seriously, and his research terminated when funding from Toyota was cut off. He moved back to England and retired, while Pons reportedly became embittered and ceased working in the field.
Today, a handful of laboratories still pursue cold fusion, but their work remains largely ignored.
I knew nothing about it myself until Eugene Mallove, the former science writer from MIT, sent me a copy of a book he had written titled Fire from Ice, which provided an excellent factual summary.
But Mallove also edits Infinite Energy, a magazine which Arthur C. Clarke had helped to fund; and this turned out to be a wild grab bag of eye-popping assertions and evangelistic rants against the establishment.
In the March-June issue, for instance, an article was headlined:. Low-Energy Bulk-Process Alchemy One-Tenth Gram of Thorium Becomes Titanium and Copper Most Sacrosanct Principles of Physics Overturned.
At the same time, buried among the far-fetched claims were rigorous reports from credentialed scientists. The result was schizophrenic, like a collision between American Journal of Physics and Weekly World News.
When I saw that the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion would be held in Vancouver within a few weeks, I decided to go there to find out for myself just how wacky these cold fusionists would turn out to be.
In a huge, grandiose convention center I found about extremely conventional-looking scientists, almost all of them male and over In fact some seemed over 70, and I realized why: The younger ones had bailed years ago, fearing career damage from the cold fusion stigma.
I sat through four days of highly technical presentations and was amazed by the quantity of the work, its quality, and the credentials of the people pursuing it.
A few obvious pseudoscientists, promoting their ideas in an adjoining room used for poster sessions, were politely ignored. Stanley Pons, now in his mids, did not attend, but Martin Fleischmann was there, pacing impatiently, as bad-tempered as a snapping turtle - though he could be charming when he felt like it.
He looked younger than his 71 years, with a stocky build, a pink complexion, and long hair hanging behind a balding pate.
Eyeing me with amusement through gold wire-framed glasses, he entertained himself by avoiding most of my questions. I asked why his lab in the south of France had lost its funding.
Do you imagine the seven sisters [the world's top oil companies] want it? Does it fit into any idea of macroeconomics or microeconomics? I don't think so.
And do you really think that the Department of Defense wants electrochemists producing nuclear reactions in test tubes? I liked his defiant, gadfly style, but his habit of answering questions with questions wasn't very helpful, so I chatted briefly with John Bockris.
Sharp-profiled, slightly bent with age, he moved from one exhibit of research results to the next with the fastidious, perfectionist eye of a watchmaker, tut-tutting over tiny discrepancies or unsupported hypotheses.
Supposedly, this was the man who had either committed fraud, or allowed his grad student to do so. Finally I talked to Dan Cavicchio, a multimillionaire whose New Energy Partners VC fund has raised venture capital for commercial applications of cold fusion.
Soft-spoken and low-key, with a neat haircut and a conservative suit, Cavicchio told me that in the late s he made a fortune by buying companies that had good technology but were poorly managed.
When his partner left, Cavicchio looked around, found cold fusion, and became convinced that it was real.
This was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to get involved with something that's going to change the earth, it's going to be so big. Of course, scientists outside the conference would have laughed at these ambitions - if they'd had any way of knowing about them.
As far as I could tell, I was the only mainstream journalist who bothered to attend. To the outside world, it didn't exist.
I found myself faced with an impossible choice: Either chemists and physicists had spent the past nine years doing incompetent experiments and engaging in full-blown self-delusion, or a genuine discovery of great importance had been discredited so thoroughly, some ornery retirees and tenured professors were the only ones who still had the courage even to mention it.
On a quiet backstreet near El Camino Real, a profusion of trees screens a sprawling complex of '60s-style buildings.
SRI International is quintessentially Northern California: tasteful, verdant, low-key. Founded in to tap talent from nearby Stanford University, its innovations include liquid-crystal displays, optical data storage, acoustic modems, pen-input computing, HDTV, artificial heart valves, and speech-recognition software.
All its research is sponsored by outside companies or government agencies, mostly seeking practical applications. Michael McKubre, the Energy Research Center director, is blue-eyed and brawny in jeans and a black T-shirt as he strides vigorously across the lobby to meet me.
His longish hair and beard are gray at the edges, but he seems energized and confident, like a woodsman setting out on a hike. He leads me across a courtyard rimmed with eucalyptus trees, into a building of chemistry labs.
Although born in New Zealand, McKubre has an almost English accent, and his voice is well modulated, as if he once took acting lessons. He's relaxed, witty, and charming.
When I ask to see one of the laboratories, he opens a door for me, then pauses. He's referring to a cold fusion cell that exploded after building up excess gas pressure.
I still have pieces of glass in me that work their way up to the surface. Otherwise, the work would have ended.
If we're right, and there's a nuclear-based heat production mechanism, I believe the implications for humanity and science are too great for any individual to say, 'I don't want to do this anymore.
Burden on the Examiner. Examiner Has Initial Burden To Show That One of Ordinary Skill in the Art Would Reasonably Doubt the Asserted Utility" , U.
Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2nd, illustrated ed. Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed. We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.
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Rislove , "A Case Study of Inoperable Inventions: Why Is the USPTO Patenting Pseudoscience? Archived from the original on 13 February — via www.
Another computer scientist translated an old article in the Swedish technical journal Ny Teknika. Taubes says: " Ny Teknika seemed to believe that Tandberg had missed on the discovery of the century, done in by an ignorant patent bureau.
When Pons heard the story, he agreed. The department had had its laboratory administrators send emissaries to Washington immediately.
The government laboratories had free reign [ sic ] to pursue their cold fusion research, Ianniello said, to use whatever resources they needed, and DOE would cover the expenses.
A reason that it is not as well known below this energy because the individual rates are so low. However, the rate is known at room temperature from muon catalysed fusion experiments.
There is no reason to think that these branching ratios would be measurably altered for cold fusion. Materials Characterization: D. Confinement Pressure, which has a similar explanation.
Electrochemical cold fusion is widely considered to be discredited. Douglas 28 February Bibcode : PhLA.. The phenomenon then separates the scientists in two camps, believers and skeptics.
Interest dies as only a small band of believers is able to 'produce the phenomenon' Ackermann, Eric February , "Indicators of failed information epidemics in the scientific journal literature: A publication analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion", Scientometrics , 66 3 : —, doi : Energy panel split over whether experiments produced power" , Nature News , doi : MIT professor risks career to reenergize discredited idea" , The Boston Globe Derry, Gregory Neil , What Science Is and How It Works reprint, illustrated ed.
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion. Held 31 October-5 November in Marseilles , 11Th Condensed Matter Nuclear Science , 11 , p.
Hagelstein, Peter L. Cold Fusion? Laurence, William L. E7 Lewenstein, Bruce V. COLD FUSION: The history of research in Italy PDF.
Translated by Costigliola, Chiara Maria. Archived PDF from the original on 13 March In the foreword by the president of ENEA the belief is expressed that the cold fusion phenomenon is proved.
Mehra, Jagdish; Milton, K. In Saeta , pp. Mosier-Boss, Pamela A. Try again! Oops, something went wrong while loading your game. Help Activate Flash to enjoy this game.
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